The Human Genome project HGP The Human Genome project HGP The main reason for the successful completion of the Human Genome was that it allowed investments and help from the researchers and collaborators all over the world moving beyond the borders in an effort to understand the heritage of our molecules and also to benefit from the techniques and approaches provided by researchers all over the world. This was known from the start but as better technologies have come in, the HGP has shown more and more potential. However, from an ethical point of view, many critics even today have cracked down on the project. The main reason for this been the timeline of the project and the expenses that go with it.
Genome is the whole genetic information of an organism. The idea of human genome project started in Decemberwhen the U. Department of Energy DOENational Institutes of Health NIH and international groups had sponsored meeting to consider the feasibility and usefulness of mapping and sequencing the human genome.
The aim of DOE is to make human genome as a way of aiding the detection of mutations that nuclear reaction might cause. Congress in and at the same time NIH had started funding grants for genome project. InNational Research Council recommended a concerted program to map and sequence the human genome and inthe U.
Congress agreed with the idea. InHuman Genome Project began. Human Genome Project was projected to be a year project.
The goals of this phase are mapping human genome, determine the sequence of all 3. Human Genome Project made progress efficiently and it worked faster than schedule so on October second Human Genome Project five-year plan was published with new goals which are creating detailed genetic and physical maps, developing efficient strategies for sequencing and encouraging technology research.
Inthird Human Genome Project five-year plan was published with the goals of completing human genome sequencing, studying human genome sequence variation and mouse genome. Infull-scale of human genome sequencing began. Inanalysis of human genome sequence is refined. The analysis reduced the estimate number of genes from to only to The finished sequence contains 2.
Other than that, the existence of protein-coding genes is confirmed by the researcher and of other DNA segment that thought to be protein coding genes is identified. The advantage of this approach is sequencers are less likely to make mistakes when assembling the shotgun fragments into contigs which is the overlapping DNA sequence and to overlapping physical segments fragments contained in clones depending on the context as long as full chromosomes.
Mapping Firstly, the researcher need to identified thousands of DNA sequence marks which will help them to understand the map of the chromosomes.
This map also helps the geneticists to discover disease genes. Then the scientists try to create libraries of clones. Each clone contains a small fragment of human DNA and it is stored in bacteria, E. This clone-by-clone approach is used to double check the location of each DNA sequence.
Coli bacteria that live in human intestines. Coli cell stores a single segment of human DNA. Clone libraries help scientists to track and copy human DNA fragment easily. Sub-clones Clone libraries are prepared by using bacterial artificial chromosomes BAC.
Large BAC clones are cut into smaller fragments of about 2, bases. These smaller fragments are stored in viruses called phage. Phage can infect E. Coli cells which containing fragments of human DNA can be stored in freezers.
Coli is revived by bringing them back up to 37?? Coli cells act as copiers and they produce many copies of the human DNA sequence that stored inside them.
The clone cells are put into a rich, warm broth. The cells are shaken vigorously for providing them with air and then causing them to divide rapidly. After incubating for a night, the broth will contain large number of E.The Human Genome Project Biology Essay. Human Genome Project (HGP): The HGP was initiated in with the objective of determining the DNA sequence of the entire human genome within 15 years.
By , there was a draft sequence of the human genome4. Researchers identified, in its 3 billion letters, many of the regions that code for proteins.
The Human Genome Project was the largest international scientific research conducted in the field of Biology. This research project began in with a mission of discovering all the genes in human DNA and determining the sequences of chemical base pairs which make up the DNA of human.
An Overview of the Human Genome Project What was the Human Genome Project? The Human Genome Project (HGP) was the international, collaborative research program whose goal was the complete mapping and understanding of all the genes of human beings.
The Human Genome Project This Research Paper The Human Genome Project and other 64,+ term papers, college essay examples and free essays are available now on kaja-net.com Autor: review • November 22, • Research Paper • 1, Words (8 Pages) • 1, Views4/4(1).
The Human Genome Project Introduction The Human Genome Project (HGP) is a plan to develop a detailed genetic and physical map of the human genome. As a result of this project, it is predicted that vast increases in technology and biological approaches to the molecular world will occur.
Human Genome Project Essay The Human Genome Initiative is a worldwide research effort that has the goal of analyzing the sequence of human DNA and determining the location of all human genes. Begun in , the U.S. Human Genome project was originally planned to last 15 years but now is projected to be complete in 13 years.