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Origins of the Sri Lankan civil war The origins of the Sri Lankan Civil War lie in the continuous political rancor between the majority Sinhalese and the minority Tamils.
In major Sinhalese and Tamil political organizations united to form the Ceylon National Congress, under the leadership of Arunachalam, to press the colonial government for more constitutional reforms. William Manning actively encouraged the concept of "communal representation" and created the Colombo town seat inwhich dangled between the Tamils and the Sinhalese.
Perera and Philip Gunawardena demanded the replacement of English as the official language by Sinhala and Tamil. In November a motion that "in the Municipal and Police Courts of the Island the proceedings should be in the vernacular " and that "entries in police stations should be recorded in the language in which they are originally stated" were passed by the State Council and referred to the Legal Secretary.
However, in J. Jayawardene moved in the State Council that Sinhala should replace English as the official language. Inimmediately after independence, a controversial law was passed by the Ceylon Parliament called the Ceylon Citizenship Actwhich deliberately discriminated against the Indian Tamil ethnic minority by making it virtually impossible for them to obtain citizenship in the country.
Over the next three decades more thanIndian Tamils were deported back to India.
In Prime Minister S. Bandaranaike passed the " Sinhala Only Act ", which replaced English with Sinhala as the only official language of the country. This was seen as a deliberate attempt to discourage the Sri Lankan Tamils from working in the Ceylon Civil Service and other public services.
The civil war was a direct result of the escalation of the confrontational politics that followed. At this time Anton Balasinghaman employee of the British High Commission in Colombo, began to participate in separatist activities. In the late s several Tamil youth, among them Velupillai Prabhakaranalso became involved in these activities.
They carried out several hit-and-run operations against pro-government Tamil politicians, Sri Lanka police and the civil administration. During the s  the Policy of standardization was initiated.
Under the policy, students were admitted to university in proportion to the number of applicants who sat for the examination in their language. Officially the policy was designed to increase the representation of students from rural areas.
In practice the policy reduced the numbers of Sri Lankan Tamil students who had previously, based on their examination scores alone, gained admission in a higher proportion than their participation in the examination. They were now required to gain higher marks than Sinhalese students to gain admission to universities.
The policy was abandoned in A further movement, the Eelam Revolutionary Organisation of Students EROSformed in Manchester and London; it became the backbone of the Eelamist movement in the diaspora, arranging passports and employment for immigrants and levying a heavy tax on them.
The resolution called for the creation of a secular, socialist state of Tamil Eelam, based on the right of self-determination. Krishnan, who later became the first international representative of LTTE.
The "boys" were the product of the post-war population explosion. Many partially educated, unemployed Tamil youth fell for revolutionary solutions to their problems. The leftist parties had remained "non-communal" for a long time, but the Federal Party as well as its offshoot, the TULFdeeply conservative and dominated by Vellalar casteism, did not attempt to form a national alliance with the leftists in their fight for language rights.
Following the sweeping electoral victory of the United National Party UNP in Julythe TULF became the leading opposition party, with around one-sixth of the total electoral vote winning on a party platform of secession from Sri Lanka.
After the riots the J. Jayewardene government made one concession to the Tamil population; it lifted the policy of standardization for university admission that had driven many Tamil youths into militancy.
The concession was regarded by the militants as too little too late, and violent attacks continued. By this time TULF started losing its grip over the militant groups.
Thereafter, Tamil political parties were unable to represent the interests of the Tamil community. Four Four Bravo and Eelam War I Supported by the ongoing politics of conflict in Sri Lanka, politicised Tamil youth in the north and east started to form militant groups. These groups developed independently of the Colombo Tamil leadership, and in the end rejected and annihilated them.
The LTTE initially carried out a campaign of violence against the state, particularly targeting policemen and also moderate Tamil politicians who attempted a dialogue with the government.
Their first major operation was the assassination of the mayor of Jaffna, Alfred Duraiappahin by Prabhakaran. This violent example of ethnic biblioclasm was a major turning point in convincing the Tamil people that the government could not protect them or their cultural heritage and persuaded many of them to back a separate state.Fateful Lightning: A New History of the Civil War and Reconstruction [Allen C.
Guelzo] on kaja-net.com *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. The Civil War is the greatest trauma ever experienced by the American nation, a four-year paroxysm of violence that left in its wake more than A historian using statistical methods to study digital census records says the number of dead in the US Civil War was 20% higher than previously thought.
This course explores the causes, course, and consequences of the American Civil War, from the s to The primary goal of the course is to understand the multiple meanings of a transforming event in American history.
Those meanings may be defined in many ways: national, sectional, racial. This article relies extensively on quotations that were previously collated by an advocacy or lobbying group. Please improve this article or . I am indebted to Justin Sanders and Ed Frank for sending me photocopies of the speech from the Encyclopedia of the Confederacy, and to Joe Hartley for scanning it in.
The people of Georgia having dissolved their political connection with the Government of the United States of America, present to their confederates and the world the causes which have led to the separation.